Cotton Research Institute (CRI) of Nanjing Agricultural University was founded by Academician Zefang Feng and Professor Jiaju Pan, both were well-known cotton agricultural scientists and educators. With the lineage of the founders, Cotton Research Institute develops into a leading cotton research unit world widely. The team is chiefly engaged in the cotton research from different perspectives including genetics, genomics, molecular breeding, cotton genomic modification (GM) and breeding, germplasm enhancement and hybrid cotton development. An integrated research platform involving both basic and applied research has been established. CRI has established research facilities over the cotton production area across the country, which provides the complete service for cotton genetic breeding and the sustainable cotton research projects. The research projects being conducted by CRI have been supported by grants from National 973 Program, National 863 Project, National Natural Science Foundation, National Research and Development Project of Transgenic Crops Project, as well as the research funds from Jiangsu Provincial government, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Agriculture. More than 100 research papers and books were published. A dozen of national research awards and honors have been presented to CRI. Fourteen patents have been authorized and 12 new hybrid varieties been released and commercialized. In terms of conference presentation and visiting scholar exchange, CRI also plays an emerging role in the coordination of international collaboration over cotton research community in the United States, Australia, etc.